In the early 1960's the Soviet Union and Red China initiated a serious effort to increase their influence by sponsoring "wars of national liberation." The United States responded to this attempt by developing both a doctrine and a technology of counterinsurgency.
Long, William F.
"A Perspective of Counterinsurgency in Three Dimensions—Tradition, Legitimacy, Visibility,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 23
, Article 5.
Available at: http://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol23/iss2/5