The close of 1982 found the American diplomatic position in the Middle East very different from a year earlier. The year 1981 had been a difficult and unproductive year for American diplomats charged with designing and executing American Middle Eastern policy, but it had only witnessed events which confirmed previously known or suspected regional trends.
Davis, M. Thomas
"Recent Events in the Middle East: Continuing Dilemmas for US Policy,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 36
, Article 3.
Available at: http://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol36/iss4/3