In the years immediately after World War II, three British innovations—the angled flight deck, steam catapult, and optical landing aid—enabled the modern aircraft carrier. How did the U.S. Navy take such quick advantage of them, and why were they not American innovations in the first place?
Hone, Thomas C.; Friedman, Norman; and Mandeles, Mark D.
"The Development of the Angled-Deck Aircraft Carrier—Innovation and Adaptation,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 64
, Article 5.
Available at: http://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol64/iss2/5