During an era of slow, uncertain communications, Royal Navy operations during the opening months of the War of 1812 underscore the complexity of naval decision making at the campaign level. Studying this period aids in understanding the relationship among governmental leaders, their theater commanders, and operational elements at sea.
McCranie, Kevin D.
"Confronting Uncertainty with Decentralized Command, British Naval Decision Making at the Outbreak of the War of 1812,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 70
, Article 6.
Available at: http://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol70/iss4/6