CMSI China Maritime Reports



Download Full Text (1.8 MB)


In recent years, China’s naval industries have made tremendous progress supporting the modernization of the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) submarine force, both through robust commitment to research and development (R&D) and the upgrading of production infrastructure at the country’s three submarine shipyards: Bohai Shipyard, Huludao; Wuchang Shipyard, Wuhan; and Jiangnan Shipyard, Shanghai. Nevertheless, China’s submarine industrial base continues to suffer from surprising weaknesses in propulsion (from marine diesels to fuel cells) and submarine quieting. Closer ties with Russia could provide opportunities for China to overcome these enduring technological limitations by exploiting political and economic levers to gain access to Russia’s remaining undersea technology secrets.

Publication Date

September, 2023


China Maritime Studies Institute, U.S Naval War College


Newport, Rhode Island


China, China Maritime Studies Institute, CMSI, People’s Liberation Army, PLAN, nuclear, submarines, nuclear submarines, ssn, undersea warfare, ssbn, industry

China Maritime Report No. 31: China's Submarine Industrial Base: State-Led Innovation with Chinese Characteristics