That armed groups have been responsible for attacks against health care personnel and for violating the protection of health care is not news. This is one of the greatest humanitarian challenges of contemporary armed conflict. Armed groups, however, have also attempted to evacuate and treat wounded enemy fighters and civilians and, in certain contexts, they have even provided health care services for the civilian population living in the territories under their control. This article describes some of the key issues related to the variation of armed groups’ behaviors when dealing with the protection of health care, inquiring into why some groups have attacked health care facilities, personnel, and transports, while others have taken positive steps to ensure their protection and the provision of health care. The last part of this article introduces the approach undertaken by Geneva Call when engaging these non-State actors and discusses its new Deed of Commitment on the Protection of Health Care in Armed Conflict.