International Law Studies


This article examines international obligations that arise in relation to the conduct of other States, and analyzes how they apply and interact in the context of partnered warfare. It investigates rules of State responsibility relevant to the context of partnered warfare, as well as primary norms that impose obligations connected to the conduct of others. In essence, they consist of obligations not to actively help to or to blindly let others do what a State would not do itself. It is argued that, taken together, these rules form the contour of an overarching framework of mutual compliance among States cooperating in military operations, whereby each State has a duty to ensure, and interest in ensuring, that partners respectively abide by their international obligations.