Cyberspace has undoubtedly become an operational domain for States, a reality prominently acknowledged by the United States on repeated occasions. Indeed, according to Admiral Michael S. Rogers, the new U.S. Cyber Command Commander and National Security Agency Director, all major combatant commands will soon have dedicated cyber attack forces. Other States, such as the United Kingdom, the Netherlands4 and France 5 have similarly announced that they are developing offensive cyber capabilities. At the same time, non-State actors possess relatively easy access to cyber attack tools and therefore represent a considerable national security threat to countries. Cyber war is here to stay. As States formulate national positions on international law and cyber operations, they are highly likely to be influenced by the authoritative “Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare”.
Schmitt, Michael N. and Vihul, Lils
"The "Tallinn Manual" Sets Forth the Rules for Cyber Warfighters,"
MOC Warfighter: Vol. 1
, Article 5.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/moc-warfighter/vol1/iss3/5