On the afternoon of 31 May 1916, the British grand fleet and the German High Sea Fleet met in the only massed battle fleet action of the First World War. After a series of exchanges that lasted some twelve hours, both sides, in what became known as the Battle of Jutland, broke off battle and failed to engage each other again. The German decision was prompted by the unexpected appearance of the Grand Fleet's superior number of battleships; Admiral Sir John Jellicoe's decision not to pursue his fleeing opponent stemmed from his fear of running into a torpedo trap. Both sides claimed victory.
Breemer, Jan S., "The Burden of Trafalgar: Decisive Battle and Naval Strategic Expectations on the Eve of the First World War" (1993). The Newport Papers. 6.