Naval War College Review


April 1941-England stood alone in Europe. In the Atlantic, German submarines, using the wolf-pack tactics initiated the previous winter, had shifted their operations to the mid-ocean area where convoys were largely unprotected because of a shortage of Canadian and British escorts. In Washington the Chief of Naval Operations, Adm. Harold R. "Betty" Stark, worked against a lack of time and resources to prepare the U.S. Navy to join that battle.