April 1941-England stood alone in Europe. In the Atlantic, German submarines, using the wolf-pack tactics initiated the previous winter, had shifted their operations to the mid-ocean area where convoys were largely unprotected because of a shortage of Canadian and British escorts. In Washington the Chief of Naval Operations, Adm. Harold R. "Betty" Stark, worked against a lack of time and resources to prepare the U.S. Navy to join that battle.
Norton, Douglas M.
"The Open Secret: The U.S. Navy in the Battle of The Atlantic, April-December 1941,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 27
, Article 8.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol27/iss1/8