Naval War College Review


And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. Genesis 1:2. On 4 April 1949, at a ceremony in the ornate Departmental Auditorium in Washington, D.C., the North Atlantic Treaty was signed. For all of the 12 parties, European no less than North American, the pact-a peacetime military coalition transoceanic in scope-was unprecedented.