In 1919, three major naval powers—Great Britain, Japan, and the United States—faced two major challenges: integrating new technology into their doctrines and organizations, and coping with reduced naval expenditures and arms treaties that came as a postwar reaction to armaments spending.
Hone, Thomas C. and Mandeles, Mark D.
"Interwar Innovation in Three Navies: U.S. Navy, Royal Navy, Imperial Japanese Navy,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 40
, Article 9.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol40/iss2/9