The Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), launched in 2003, is an international effort to limit the spread of weapons of mass destruction to rogue states and terrorists. With sixteen core member states and some sixty cooperating nations, it enjoys today many advantages of law and organization in coastal waters, but it lacks useful authority to interdict WMD on the high seas. PSI itself, however, represents an opportunity to alter international law and fill that critical gap.
Doolin, Joel A.
"The Proliferation Security Initiative—Cornerstone of a New International Norm,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 59
, Article 5.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol59/iss2/5