Abroad spectrum of nontraditional and asymmetric threats challenges U.S. maritime homeland security. The smuggling of drugs, arms, and people; vesselborne improvised explosive devices, like that used by terrorists against the guided-missile destroyer USS Cole in October 2002; proliferation of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-explosive weapons of mass destruc- tion and disruption; piracy and organized crime; overexploitation of marine re- sources and the destruction of marine habitats; environmental attacks and trade disruption; political and religious extremism; mass migration flows; global health threats (e.g., the spread of infectious diseases like SARS and avian flu)—all these and more pose far-reaching dangers for American security interests at home and abroad.
Truver, Scott C.
"Mines and Underwater IEDs in U.S. Ports and Waterways,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 61
, Article 8.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol61/iss1/8