When after World War II Communism emerged as a powerful force in China, it engendered great puzzlement on the part of many people. First of all, China did not (and still does not) fit the classical example of an industrialized country with a politically conscious proletariat which Karl Marx envisioned as the breeding ground for communism.
DeWitt, Duane D.
"Nationalism Versus Communism In Chinese Foreign Policy,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 21
, Article 7.
Available at: http://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol21/iss1/7