Russian aspirations in the Eastern Mediterranean date back to Peter the Great. Turkey, lying athwart the Straits between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, has often experienced Russian probes but has successfully resisted them with the alternating and occasionally combined support of Great Britain, France, and Germany.
Blixt, Melvin D.
"Soviet Objectives in the Eastern Mediterranean,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 22
, Article 3.
Available at: http://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol22/iss3/3