The Office of the Chief of Naval Operations has, since its inception in 1915, extended its managerial responsibility to virtually every facet of the Navy. In doing so, it has violated most of the fundamental rules of good bureaucratic management and is now unable to cope with the hard decisions necessitated by a world of resource scarcity and international naval competition.
McGruther, Kenneth R.
"A Rational Approach to Restructuring the Office of the CNO,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 27:
4, Article 5.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol27/iss4/5