Naval War College Review


In 1940 the resistance emerged in occupied France to challenge by nonviolent means the awesome power of the German occupation. The basic conflict was over values, and the proponents of each set were easily identified. On the one hand were German soldiers and administrators who represented a victorious army, a triumphant government, and a way of life called nazism, which stressed discipline, order, and authority, stifled scholarship and free inquiry, classified human beings as "aryan" supermen or inferior sub-humans on the basis of race and ethnicity, and had no hesitation to use force and brutality.