The Soviet Union's efforts to build a powerful fleet, its interest in a naval station to serve its Mediterranean squadron, its feelers through Persia to a warm water port, and its special development programs to meet operational requirements have antecedents in tsarist times. The goals of that earlier flexing of muscle were confounded by technology and politics.
"Russia's Struggle For Maritime Prestige During the Era of Navalism,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 32
, Article 4.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol32/iss6/4