This paper examines the interaction of two cultures—Islam and the West—in order to derive some insight into the process of response and adaptation of Islam to Western challenges.
Mumford, Jay C.
"Islamic Responses to Western Contact,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 33:
6, Article 7.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol33/iss6/7