Short of actual military operations, the Navy evaluates its combat capabilities in three ways: war games, systems or operations analyses, and exercises. The Navy uses all of these techniques extensively, and their roles often seem to overlap.
Perla, Peter P.
"War Games, Analyses, and Exercises,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 40
, Article 7.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol40/iss2/7