Operation "Just Cause," the December 1989 military intervention in Panama by the United States to restore order, protect U.S. lives, and ensure the integrity of the Panama Canal Treaty, was the fifth such incursion into that nation by the United States in this century.
Terry, James P.
"Law in Support of Policy in Panama,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 43
, Article 9.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol43/iss4/9