The international security system, at the end of the twentieth century is characterized by integration and disintegration. Integration is visible in terms of global communications, the information revolution, and the accelerated transfer of ideas, people, and goods across borders. Disintegration is characterized by ethnic conflict, violence in the wake of fallen empires or fragmenting states, economic scarcity, environmental degradation, epidemics, and migration. The rise of regional powers and challenges to the status quo are other forms of disintegration.
Ritcheson, Philip L.
"Proliferation: Scope, Prospects, and Implications,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 50
, Article 28.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol50/iss3/28