Naval War College Review


Recent studies of large, formal organizations that perform complex, inherently hazardous, and highly technical task under conditions of tight coupling and severe time pressure have generally concluded that most will fail spectaculatory at some point, with attendant human and social const of great severity. The notion that accidents in these systems are "normal," that is, to be expected given the coditions and risks of operations and risk of operation, appears to be as well grounded in experience as in theory.