Naval War College Review


During World War II it took the Navy and Marine Corps years to confirm and refine their prewar doctrine for amphibious attack. The labor began with the first U.S. landings at Guadalcanal in August 1942; the resulting doc- trine, organization, tactics, and techniques were subsequently used by the Army in Europe. Early operations in both theaters highlighted the enormous difficul- ties associated with essential medical elements, and it was not until late 1944, perhaps 1945, that these problems were adequately solved.