China historically has been a continental rather than a maritime power, de- spite its more than eleven thousand miles of coastline and more than six thousand islands. It has more often viewed the sea as a potential invasion route for foreign aggressors rather than as a medium for achieving national goals, a tendency that has contributed to the weakness of the Chinese maritime tradi- tion. This attitude had changed by the beginning of the twenty-first century.
Cole, Bernard D.
"The History of the Twenty-First-Century Chinese Navy,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 67:
3, Article 5.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol67/iss3/5