In the past two decades, Vietnam’s military investment has manifested a strategic shift of national interest from land to the maritime sphere, especially since 2000. This evolution reflects the country’s altered external environment and its economic transformation. During the Cold War, Hanoi focused on land warfare. Despite the existence of a small navy since the 1960s, land warfare represented the main security issue for Vietnamese decision makers, whether it concerned the Vietnam War against the United States and its allies, military intervention in Cambodia, or border defense against China.
"The Development of Vietnam’s Sea-Denial Strategy,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 70
, Article 7.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol70/iss1/7