The navies of NATO countries fall into two categories: old and new. The new navies lack modernization and readiness, making them deficient in their contributions to NATO security priorities. Sea blindness is a problem across the spectrum of NATO governments and illuminating this problem is now more important than ever in light of an increasingly aggressive Russia.
"NATO’s Selective Sea Blindness—Assessing the Alliance’s New Navies,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 72:
3, Article 4.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol72/iss3/4