Iran and Iraq remain locked in a territorial dispute over control of the River Arvand-Rud that dates from the Treaty of Erzerum in 1847. Characterized by fruitless demands, counter-demands, legal arguments, and occasional gunfire, the scene of engagement continually shifts from the waterway itself to the halls of the United Nations and back to the waterway.
"Shatt-Al-Arab (Arvand-Rud) Crisis,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 27
, Article 7.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol27/iss5/7