Naval War College Review
Following the attack upon the USS Stark (FFG 31) by Iraqi Exocet missiles in May 1987, the U.S. Navy greatly accelerated its efforts to improve anti-ship missile defenses. Much emphasis was placed on improvements to point-defense missile and close-in weapon systems that could destroy the anti-ship missiles themselves ("hard kill"), on improvements to the performance of the Standard surface-to-air missile warhead and fuse against sea-skimming cruise missiles (another "hard kill" system), and on improvements to the integration of electronic warfare detection and other "soft kill" systems aboard ship and in embarked helicopters
McGillvray, John W. Jr.
"Stealth Technology in Surface Warships,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 47:
1, Article 4.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol47/iss1/4