The Allied invasion of North Africa in November 1942 combined detailed planning, aggressive signals intelligence, deception, operational security, and good luck to achieve success seldom repeated—and that cannot be in the future if the episode’s lessons are not heeded.
"Fortuitous Endeavor—Intelligence and Deception in Operation TORCH,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 61
, Article 9.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol61/iss4/9