While the establishment of the nation- state as the preeminent system for polit- ical and social integration has led to the benefit of many social groups, it has led to the disaffection of others. The Kurds, who for centuries have acted as political pawns and mercenaries, have arguably benefited the least. Even now, with a population estimated at twenty-eight million, the Kurds remain divided among four separate countries—north- ern Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeast Turkey, and western Iran.
"Invisible Nation: How the Kurds’ Quest for Statehood IsShaping Iraq and the Middle East,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 62
, Article 18.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol62/iss1/18