The first operational definition of mentoring in organizations—offered by Kathy Kram in 1985—proposed that mentoring relationships facilitate an individual’s professional development through two distinct categories of “mentoring functions.” Career functions included sponsorship, exposure and visibility, coaching, protection, and provision of challenging assignments. Psychosocial functions included role modeling, acceptance and confirmation, counseling, and friendship.
Johnson, W. Brad and Andersen, Gene R.
"Mentoring in the U.S. Navy: Experiences and Attitudes of Senior Navy Personnel,"
Naval War College Review: Vol. 68
, Article 6.
Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol68/iss3/6